So here we are at the last of my series of four blogs. If you’ve picked up the other three: Blog 1 of 4: Aggregation, Blog 2 of 4: Checking text within a larger string and Blog 3 of 4: Primary key considerations, thanks for reading! And watch this space, I’m preparing some more, so please check back soon to read those too.
As I said before, I’ve always admired the desire of the PostgreSQL community to share knowledge and expertise. Following in that tradition I’d like to share a few pearls of PostgreSQL wisdom that I’ve picked up over the years as a PostgreSQL developer. Now let’s get started with blog 4.
4 of 4: Moving data around
In my career, I’ve seen different ways of moving data from one table to another. For example, the table where the original data is stored may be a temporary storage that is used later in a process driven by external events. So you need to store the data on event 1, use it on event 2 and remove it from the table where it was stored by event 1. But to determine which data was used in event 2, you need to store it again somewhere else. Typically it might look like this:
FUNCTION event2 (bunch of parameters)
1) select records from data stored in event1 (table1)
2) do some analysis/processing on this data in combination with the parameters
3) insert as 'evidence' the data and outcome for later analysis into table2
4) delete the records from table1
5) return for example a status of the analysis/processing
For me, this raises the following questions:
- Can we improve the subsequent insert and delete?
- What if event2 never comes, what happens to the data of table1?
To answer to question 1, yes we definitely can improve it! As I hinted in my previous blog “Primary Key Considerations” we can use a Common Table Expression “CTE” for both. For the first question we could write a job to move data from table1 to table2 but give an indication that event2 did not occur. When event2 is called, we do a similar move. For the function: “event2” lines 3) and 4) we will have the following structure:
DELETE FROM table1 t1
WHERE t1.external_identification = parameter_session_id
, 'DONE' as event2_status -- how did the data got into table2
, (now() - entry_time) as duration -- indcating the time between events
INSERT INTO table2
WHERE-clause should be changed to e.g. a date/time based condition. Also the hardcoded
'DONE' as event2_status and
duration (e.g. leave null) should be changed accordingly.
The reason why you would want to remove this from
table1 is that
event2 needs to be fast and the more records
table1 contains, the slower
event2 will eventually become. Another advantage is that a data analyst only needs to focus on the data in
And what if you needed to retreive only a few records for maintenance? Here again we could put the “CTE” into action. If we wrote it as a select of those few records you are looking for in a big table and use this prepared selection as a base to do another query (DML e.g.), it’s likely the optimiser might make a decision you don’t want it to. It could end up in a join (hash/merge/nested loop) that’s far from ideal. I solved such a situation by using the MATERIALIZED keyword.
SELECT * -- star in heaven ;-)
FROM galaxy -- possibly partitioned
WHERE ... –- conditions where partitioning is not based upon ..
-- .. but result in a small number of records
JOIN lost_in_space ON (...)
As the size of the “galaxy” increased over time (years), the batch became very slow. By only adding the keyword “MATERIALIZED”, the processing was reduced from hours to minutes. Ta dah!
And there you have it. That’s the end of my run of four short blogs on pearls of PostgreSQL coding wisdom. I hope you enjoyed them. Thanks for reading!
What are other people reading?
September 14, 2023, time flies and for the third time this year we can announce we have the new minor releases available of PostgresPURE based on the new minor releases of PostgreSQL 11 through 15 made available by the PostgreSQL community. What have we done for you?...
Introducing the New Release of Cortex and Future Developments The previous version of Cortex (2023.1) took longer than originally planned, but we had good reasons for that. This new version (2023.2) is released as planned, although our clients again gave us a lot of…
June 20, 2023, the PostgreSQL community has made available the new minor releases of PostgreSQL 11 through 15. For us, this means that based on these new minor releases, we have to start working on compiling the new releases of PostgresPURE. Meanwhile, we have done...